Organized at Nashville, Tennessee 1863-1864.
- Colonel-Frederick W. Lister
- Lieutenant Colonel-Arthur F. Reed
According to Colonel R. D. Mussey, Commissioner for Organization of Colored Troops, the organization of this regiment was begun by Governor Andrew Johnson in 1863, at which time one or two companies were formed. On June 15, 1864, Adjutant General L. Thomas reported there were at Nashville two companies of the 40th regiment, “which will probably be ordered to East Tennessee to fill the regiment there.” This intention was not carried out, and on August 27, 1864 Colonel Mussey stated: “The 40th Regiment today has only about 275 men.”
On August 16, 1864, Brigadier General L. H.Rousseau reported a detachment from the 40th Regiment on guard duty on the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad. On August 31, two companies, under Captain David Boyd, were reported as part of Colonel Charles R. Thompson’s forces on this road.
On October 10, 1864, Colonel Mussey reported the regiment had a total of about 400 men, of which two companies were on the Nashville and Northwestern, and a detachment on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad near Gallatin, Tennessee. On December 31, 1864, five companies, under Lieutenant Colonel Arthur F. Reed, were reported in Colonel James Gilfillan’s command at Gallatin, and on the Louisville and Nashville Rail-road.
On February 28, 1865, the five companies, under Colonel James Gilfillan, were the only forces reported at Gallatin. On April 2, 1865, the regiment was transferred to the District of East Tennessee, 4th Division, Department of the Cumberland. On April 24, Colonel Lister, with his regiment was ordered to report to Greeneville, Tennessee, where the regiment was assigned to Colonel Horatio Gibson’s 2nd Brigade, Brigadier General Davis Tilison’s 4th Division.
On July 20, 1865, the regiment was placed in Brevet Major General Charles Cruft’s 1st Brigade, with Headquarters at Greeneville. The last record was a report of organizations mustered out, or to be mustered out, dated October 24, 1865. This report listed the 106th Regiment and bore a footnote that the 40th Regiment had heretofore been consolidated with the 106th.